Solar Photovoltaic Power System
 
 
Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly into electricity. A residential or commercial PV power system enables a home or business owner to generate some or all of their daily electrical energy demand on their own roof, exchanging daytime excess power for future energy needs (i.e. nighttime usage). The house remains connected to the electric utility at all times, so any power needed above what the solar system can produce is simply drawn from the utility. PV systems can also include battery backup or uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability to operate selected circuits in the residence for hours or days during a utility outage.
We are into manufacturing and supplying of solar photovoltaic power products including solar panels, hybrid inverters,
charge controllers and batteries. We also do installation and servicing of solar photovoltaic power systems.
 
Benefits of a solar PV system
 
Solar PV systems generate electricity
   
Once the system has been purchased, electricity is generated from a ‘free’ resource—the sun
   
Solar electricity is generated without emitting greenhouse gases
   
Solar panels or modules are silent, without any moving parts
   
Solar modules are generally unobtrusively mounted on an existing roof
Solar modules can be integrated into the building in the form of windows, walls, roof tiles or pergolas
   
Solar electricity can supplement or provide all your electrical consumption
   
Solar electricity can be fed into the grid
   
Additional solar modules can be added later as demand or budget grows
   
A solar module should last for at least 20–25 years.
 
Types of Solar Photovoltaic Power System
 
Major categories of Solar PV system designs include systems that interact with the utility power grid and have no battery backup capability, systems that interact with the utility power grid and have battery backup capability and off-grid system.
 
Grid-Interactive with no Battery Backup
 
The major elements of a grid-connected PV system that does not include storage elements (Batteries) are shown in figure. A building has two parallel power supplies, one from the solar PV system and the other from the power grid. The combined power supply feeds all the loads connected to the main ACDB.
 
The ratio of solar PV supply to power grid supply varies, depending on the size of the solar PV system. Whenever the solar PV supply exceeds the building’s demand, excess electricity will be exported into the grid. When there is no sunlight to generate PV electricity at night, the power grid will supply all of the building’s demand.
 
 
 
A grid-connected system can be an effective way to reduce your dependence on utility power, greatest amount of bill savings to the customer per rupee of investment, increase renewable energy production, and improve the environment.
 
Typical System Components
 
PV Array
   
  A PV Array is made up of PV modules, which are environmentally-sealed collections of PV Cells— the devices that convert sunlight to electricity.
 
Balance of system equipment (BOS)
   
  BOS includes mounting systems and wiring systems used to integrate the solar modules into the structural and electrical systems of the home. The wiring systems include disconnects for the dc and ac sides of the inverter, ground-fault protection, and over current protection for the solar modules. Most systems include a combiner board of some kind since most modules require fusing for each module source circuit. Some inverters include this fusing and combining function within the inverter enclosure.
 
DC-AC inverter
   
  This is the device that takes the dc power from the PV array and converts it into standard ac power used by the house appliances.
 
Metering
   
  In most cases the electricity meter records the energy sent to the grid as well as the energy consumed from the grid. However, in some cases it may instead record all the energy produced from the solar modules as well as all the energy consumed by the house. Your electricity distributor reads the meter and determines your balance. Your electricity retailer then bills for the energy consumed or make payment for the excess production.
 
ACDB
   
  Loads connected to it.
 
Grid-Interactive With Battery Backup
 
This type of system incorporates energy storage in the form of a battery to keep “critical load” circuits in the house operating during a utility outage. When an outage occurs the unit disconnects from the utility and powers specific circuits in the home. These critical load circuits are wired from a subpanel that is separate from the rest of the electrical circuits. If the outage occurs during daylight hours, the PV array is able to assist the battery in supplying the house loads.
If the outage occurs at night, the battery supplies the load. The amount of time critical loads can operate depends on the amount of power they consume and the energy stored in the battery system.
 
 
 
Typical System Components
   
  In addition to components listed in grid interactive with no storage, a battery backup system may include some or all of the following:
 
    Batteries and battery enclosures
       
    Battery charge controller
       
    Separate subpanels for critical load circuits

     

     

 
Off-grid Solar PV System
 
Off-grid solar PV systems are applicable for areas without power grid. Currently, such solar PV systems are usually installed at isolated sites where the power grid is far away, such as rural areas or off-shore islands. But they may also be installed within the city in situations where it is inconvenient or too costly to tap electricity from the power grid.

An off-grid solar PV system needs deep cycle rechargeable batteries such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or lithium-ion batteries to store electricity for use under conditions where there is little or no output from the solar PV system, such as during the night, as shown in Figure below.
 
     
 
Typical System Components
   
  In addition to components listed in grid interactive with no storage, a battery backup system may include some or all of the following:
 
    Solar PV module
       
    Charge Controller
       
    Battery
       
    Inverter

     

     

 
 
Applications
 
Solar Photovoltaic can be used in a wide range of applications such as
   
HOMES
 
INDUSTRIES
 
AGRICULTURE
 
HOTELS
 
SCHOOLS
 
HOSPITALS
 
DAIRIES
 
AIRPORTS
 
ALL GOVT. AND PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS.
 
 
 
 
 
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